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1207. 1 October Henry III, the future king of England is born to King John and Isabella of Angoulême.

Years Done but 75% of lines still to take out

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1209. King John excommunicated from the Catholic Church by Pope Innocent III.

1215. The Magna Carta was signed. It was the first document to put into writing the principle that the king and his government were not above the law. It sought to prevent the king from exploiting his power and placed limits on royal authority by establishing law as a power.

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1216. May. Prince Louis  of France landed in Kent to claim Kingship from John. While reordering his defence of the Kingdom in Norfolk. at Lynn, John contracted dysentery, which  later prove fatal.

1216. While crossing The Wash John lost his baggage train and reputably a considerable amount of Royal Jewelry

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1216. 18/19 October King John died at Newark Castle in Nottinghamshire. His body was taken to Worcester Cathedral. He stipulated in his Will that he wanted to be buried in Worcester Cathedral, between the shrines of St Wulfstan and St Oswald. The original Will (the oldest remaining royal will in England) is still kept in the Cathedral Library and can be seen by appointment when the Library is open.

1216. Henry III, nine years old, became the new king.On his deathbed, John had appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom, and requested that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal.He was crowned - the first time - by the Bishop of Gloucester 

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William Marshal.

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1219. William Marshall died.

1220. Pope orders Henry III to be recrowned by Archbishop of Canterbury Stephen Langton

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1221. South Wales reconquered by William Marshal, son of William 'the Greatest Knight' Marshall.

1231. Simon de Montfort arrived in England from France to claim the Earldom of Leicester by right of his Grandmother, Amice.

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1236. Henry IIII married Eleanor of Provence ​

 1238. Jan. Simon de Montfort married  Eleanor,Henry III's, sister secretly at the King's chapel in Westminster Palace.

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1238.Mar. Joan Queen of Scotland, Henry III's sister died when visiting him in London.

1239. Jun. Edward I is born to Henry III and Elanor of Aquitaine.

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1239. Simon de Montfort and his wife Eleanor, Henry III's sister fled to France following aquations of infidelity before their marriage.

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1240. Conwy. Welsh leader Llewelyn of Gwynedd died. Succeeded by his son Dafydd

Kingdom of Gwynedd

1240 Dafydd ap Llewellyn lead a rebellion against England to reclaim lands.

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1242. Simon de Montfort and his wife Eleanor, Henry III's sister allowed back to England to help with military affairs. He is soon appointed the Kings Vice Regent in in Gascony

1246. Self proclaimed Prince of Wales, Dafydd ap Llewelyn's Welsh rebellion is crushed by the forces of Henry III. Dafydd is killed.

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Mid 1200s. Early Gothic Architecture  at an historical high. July 1245, Henry III laid the foundation stone for Wells Cathedral. 

1239. 17 June Edward I, the future king of England born to Henry III and Elanor of Provence.

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1264. Battle of Lewes: Rebel English barons led by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester defeated King Henry III.

1265. January. Simon de Montfort called a Parliament (in the name of King Henry III), when for the first time commoners were invited to play a small part in the decisions made. This was an early landmark in the development of Parliament which would, centuries later, result in the two house democratic parliamentary system which we have today. De Montfort’s name has been remembered through the centuries as the ‘father’ of democracy.

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1265. 19 June. Simon de Montfort recognized Llewellyn of Gwynedd as Prince of Wales.

1265.The Battle of Evesham. De Montfort killed. One of the two main battles of 13th century England's Second Barons' War. It marked the defeat of Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, and the rebellious barons by the future King Edward I, who led the forces of his father, King Henry III.

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1267.Henry III recognised the authority of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd in Gwynedd.

1272. 16 Nov. King Henry III died, the new King is Edward I

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1274. 19 August 19. After returning from Crusade Edward  I was crowned King of England

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1275. Eleanor de Montfort widow of Simon captured by Edward's forces when she was on route to marry Llewelyn ap Gruffydd. She spent the rest of her life as a Nun in Lincolnshire.

1276. Edward I, after from Crusade began the conquest of Wales invading with an army of 15,000 men.

1282. "Can you not see the world is ending?"

A Lament for deposed Welsh leader Llewelyn ap Gruffordd

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1283 -84. 4000 employed on building castles including Harlech, Caernarvon and Conwy.

1284. Statute of Wales. Edward I completed the reorganization of the principality on English lines, leaving the Welsh Marchers unaffected.

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1294 - 95 Madog ap Llewellyn lead a revolt against new royal administrators in north and west Wales and the imposition of taxes. He used the title Prince of Wales.

1295. Model Parliament. The assembly included members of the clergy and the aristocracy, as well as representatives from the various counties and boroughs. Each county returned two knights, each borough elected two burgesses, and each city provided two citizens. It became the model for later parliaments.

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1298. July Sir William Wallace' Scottish army heavily defeated at Falkirk by the forces of Edward I.

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